This chapter focuses on the idea that women's “innate” aptitude for science and engineering are inferior to men's—an idea that originated from Harvard professor Lawrence Summers. The debate concerning cognitive gender differences has been going on for a long time. Many articles simply assumed that this issue had not been studied before and that Summers was to be applauded for launching new research. Plenty of early research on the subject shows very small differences in cognitive abilities between the sexes. In addition, the chapter presents the following false arguments about why girls are not good at mathematics: no “mathematics gene,” no logical brains, a low score on the mathematics SAT, boys' hormones kick in at puberty and give them a mathematic advantage, females are not hardwired for spatial abilities, and girls just do not like mathematics and science.
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