- Title Pages
- One The Science of a Grilled Cheese Sandwich
- Two Sound Appeal
- Three Mediterranean Sponge Cake
- Four Spherification
- Five Konjac Dondurma
- Six Stretchy Textures in the Kitchen
- Seven Moussaka as an Introduction to Food Chemistry
- Eight The Sticky Science of Malaysian Dodol
- Nine The Perfect Cookie Dough
- Ten To Bloom or Not to Bloom?
- Eleven Bacon
- Twelve Scandinavian “Sushi”
- Thirteen Maximizing Food Flavor by Speeding Up the Maillard Reaction
- Fourteen Lighten Up!
- Fifteen The Meringue Concept and Its Variations
- Sixteen Why Does Cold Milk Foam Better?
- Seventeen Ice Cream Unlimited
- Eighteen Egg Yolk
- Nineteen Ketchup as Tasty Soft Matter
- Twenty Taste and Mouthfeel of Soups and Sauces
- Twenty-one Playing with Sound
- Twenty-two Baked Alaska and Frozen Florida
- Twenty-three On Superb Crackling Duck Skin
- Twenty-four Sweet Physics
- Twenty-five Coffee, Please, but No Bitters
- Twenty-six Turning Waste into Wealth
- Twenty-seven Restructuring Pig Trotters
- Twenty-eight Innovate
- Twenty-nine Eating Is Believing
- Thirty Molecular Gastronomy Is a Scientific Activity
- Thirty-one The Pleasure of Eating
- Thirty-two On the Fallacy of Cooking from Scratch
- Thirty-three Science and Cooking
Sugar, Sugar Blends, and Sugar Glasses
- (p.186) Twenty-four Sweet Physics
- The Kitchen as Laboratory
- Columbia University Press
This chapter discusses the chemistry and physics of sugar. Sugar exhibits properties that go much beyond sweetness. For example, sugar molecules bind water molecules in a “hydrate shell”; in so doing, they increase the viscosity, especially at high concentrations, of the liquids that contain them. Sugar depresses the freezing point of water, a property that is exploited in the making of ice cream. Sugar can exist as a solid in both the crystalline and amorphous states. Granulated sugar has a crystalline structure. The sugar molecules are very much ordered with respect to one another, not unlike bricks in a wall. At the opposite end is the amorphous state, in which the molecules, randomly packed together, have no organization whatsoever. Scientists refer to solid, amorphous sugar as a glass, because its behavior is analogous to that of regular window glass—hard, brittle, and fragile. The remainder of the chapter discusses glass transition temperature and why it should be a culinary parameter.
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