This concluding chapter discusses the book's overall focus on the literary-visual relation as they appear in media. The visual inhabits the literary in multilayered ways; and, as had been earlier discussed, literary texts often explicitly incorporate filmic techniques. Intermediation is always already part of the textuality of a so-called literary work. It is at once verbal and visual—a summoning that asks for a verbal and visual response. These incorporations and allusions do more than encourage thought about the relations among literature, painting, photography, and film. They are explicit moments in literary texts that open up the ways in which, more generally, words refer to images. Literary works are themselves instances of visual culture; they are verbal-visual texts.
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