This chapter focuses on the potential use of online surveillance for domestic law enforcement and international espionage. Governments all over the world have found the Internet to be a valuable tool for monitoring their citizens' activities and for executing global information-gathering operations. Journalists, for example, are ideal targets for state surveillance since they communicate with politicians, critics, protesters, and even terrorists. They heavily rely on mobile devices, which can be easily monitored and intercepted. In addition to their continuous rally against government policies that undermine the free circulation of online information, journalists and activists need to improve the security of their own communications. They need to apply systematic pressure on companies such as Facebook, Twitter, Google, and Yahoo!, whose services provide the backbone of the social media; making them allies in the struggle for press freedom is the most immediate challenge.
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