This part of the book details the seventeenth-century political configuration of Northeast Asia. In 1592 the Japanese invaded and this spurred an odd alliance between Korean forces and the Ming armies, which would become more evident in later decades. Meanwhile, in provinces ruled by the Ming, Nurhaci, a Ming vassal plotting an expansionist agenda, incited hostilities. 1610–1620 saw one of the largest battles in the seventeenth century—between the Nurhaci-led Jurchen troops and the Ming armies. The battle ingrained in them the significance of forging alliances with other forces in the region, with a corresponding alliance, the Jurchens' pact which was made with the Mongol groups, and the Mings' with the Koreans. Meanwhile, at the periphery, the Russian Cossacks were expanding in the Baikal region. By the turn of the mid-seventeenth century, the Jurchens' continued attacks successfully overthrew the Ming dynasty. The Jurchens, consequently, founded the Qing dynasty (Manchu dynasty).
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