This part of the book details the nineteenth-century political configuration of Northeast Asia. In the first four decades of the nineteenth century, while the Qing empire reinforced restriction policies against Chinese migration to their territories in Mongolia and Manchuria, the Russian government focused on the reorganization of the administration of Siberia. Amid this internal unrest came the emergence of Christianity—a religion that was initially despised since Buddhism was prevalent among the Mongols and Koreans—and Orthodox Christian beliefs prevailed in Siberia. By the turn of the fifth decade of the century, reinforced by the rise in Christian beliefs, Western states were able to penetrate the Korean peninsula, Manchuria, and Mongolia. The text examines the entry of Western culture and Christianity as they re-configured relations between the Mongols, Manchus, Chinese settlers, Koreans, and the Russians towards the end of the century.
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