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Conflict, Conquest, and ConversionTwo Thousand Years of Christian Missions in the Middle East$
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Reeva Spector Simon and Eleanor Tejirian

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780231138659

Published to Columbia Scholarship Online: November 2015

DOI: 10.7312/columbia/9780231138659.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM COLUMBIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.columbia.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Minnesota Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CUPSO for personal use.date: 26 September 2021

Disintegration, Revival, Reformation, and Counter-Reformation

Disintegration, Revival, Reformation, and Counter-Reformation


(p.45) Three Disintegration, Revival, Reformation, and Counter-Reformation
Conflict, Conquest, and Conversion

Eleanor H. Tejirian

Reeva Spector Simon

Columbia University Press

This chapter begins in the fifteenth century, which saw the disintegration of Christianity in both Europe and the Middle East. In the East, the territorial contiguity left in the wake of the Mongols' conquest reinvigorated trade connections and enabled the rapid westward expansion of the Turks, who consolidated their empire in Anatolia and became an existential threat to Europe. In Europe, efforts to consolidate Christianity in the Baltic states continued, as did the reconquest of Spain. But France, Italy, and England focused their attention on internal conflict and state building rather than on the spread of Christianity. The eighteenth century brought increasing contacts between East and West as Europeans, under the intellectual influence of the Enlightenment, sought to encounter the East in new ways.

Keywords:   Europe, Middle East, Mongol invasion, conquest, Turks, Christianity, Enlightenment

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