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Howard Andrew KnoxPioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island$
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John Richardson

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780231141680

Published to Columbia Scholarship Online: November 2015

DOI: 10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.001.0001

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Borrowing the Ellis Island Tests

Borrowing the Ellis Island Tests

Chapter:
(p.218) 11 Borrowing the Ellis Island Tests
Source:
Howard Andrew Knox
Author(s):

Richardson John T. E.

Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.003.0011

This chapter focuses on the wider use of intelligence tests throughout the 1920s and 1930s until they were generally superseded by David Wechsler’s scales from 1939 onward. From May 1912 to May 1916, Howard Andrew Knox and his colleagues produced an array of psychological tests to estimate mental deficiency among emigrants at Ellis Island in New York. These tests were later borrowed and adapted in the test batteries that were devised to measure intelligence. The publication of Rudolf Pintner and Donald Gildersleeve Paterson’s A Scale of Performance Tests (1917) and of Clarence Stone Yoakum and Robert Mearns Yerkes’ manual, Army Mental Tests (1920) brought many of Knox’s tests to the attention of psychologists. This chapter considers James Drever and Mary Collins’s “series of non-linguistic tests”, Harriet Babcock’s test of mental efficiency, and other performance scales of the 1930s, along with tests that measured race, ethnicity, and performance. It also describes the Wechsler Intelligence Scales and the many variants of the Cube Imitation Test before concluding with an assessment of the demise of performance scales.

Keywords:   intelligence tests, David Wechsler, Howard Andrew Knox, psychological tests, mental deficiency, intelligence, non-linguistic tests, performance scales, Wechsler Intelligence Scales, Cube Imitation Test

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