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Howard Andrew Knox – Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island - Columbia Scholarship Online
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Howard Andrew Knox: Pioneer of Intelligence Testing at Ellis Island

John Richardson


Howard Andrew Knox (1885–1949) served as assistant surgeon at Ellis Island during the 1910s, administering a range of verbal and nonverbal tests to determine the mental capacity of potential immigrants. An early proponent of nonverbal intelligence testing (largely through the use of formboards and picture puzzles), Knox developed an evaluative approach that today informs the techniques of practitioners and researchers. Whether adapted to measure intelligence and performance in children, military recruits, neurological and psychiatric patients, or the average job applicant, Knox’s pioneering me ... More

Keywords: immigrants, Howard Andrew Knox, Ellis Island, psychological testing, psychological theory, mental capacity, nonverbal intelligence testing, U.S. Army

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2011 Print ISBN-13: 9780231141680
Published to Columbia Scholarship Online: November 2015 DOI:10.7312/columbia/9780231141680.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

John Richardson, author
The Open University