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No Return, No RefugeRites and Rights in Minority Repatriation$
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Elazar Barkan and Howard Adelman

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780231153362

Published to Columbia Scholarship Online: November 2015

DOI: 10.7312/columbia/9780231153362.001.0001

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The Right to Expel as an International Norm: 1900–1945

The Right to Expel as an International Norm: 1900–1945

(p.24) [2] The Right to Expel as an International Norm: 1900–1945
No Return, No Refuge

Howard Adelman

Elazar Barkan

Columbia University Press

This chapter traces the history of ethnic expulsions to show their wide international legitimacy until the post-World War II period, and to provide a critical context for understanding the genealogy of repatriation. Before World War II there was neither a right not to be expelled nor a right of repatriation. Any attempted repatriation of minorities failed, such as the situation of Christian minorities in Turkey on the grounds of The 1923 Treaty of Lausanne, which legitimized the country's refusal to repatriate Christians and its expulsion (and repression) of minorities. This was not the exception, but the norm. Ethnic cleansing was legitimized, not the right of repatriation. Moreover, during World War II, Germany began its population transfers by gathering its ethnic Germans in a series of bilateral treaties with the Baltic states, Italy, Romania, and, following the partition of Poland, the Soviet Union.

Keywords:   repatriation rights, ethnic expulsions, post-World War II, The 1923 Treaty of Lausanne, ethnic cleansing, Germany

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