This chapter discusses hermaphroditism in plants. In the botanical literature, hermaphroditism traditionally has been reserved for situations in which a plant bears both male and female structures within each bisexual flower. However, in a broader sense, dual sexuality also exists within any species in which at least some individuals produce both male and female gametes. Thus, the topic of dual sexuality in plants requires a consideration of species that display: monoecy (with mixtures of both types of unisex flowers on each individual); andromonoecy (mixtures of bisexual and male flowers on an individual plant); gynomonoecy (mixtures of bisexual and female flowers on a plant); androdioecy (some individuals with bisexual flowers and others with male flowers only); gynodioecy (some individuals with bisexual flowers and others with female flowers only); trioecy (some individuals with bisexual flowers, others with male flowers, and others with female flowers); and serial or sequential sex change.
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