This chapter focuses on global warming denier organizations. One of the first organizations to deny global warming was the Global Climate Coalition (GCC). Created in 1989, the GCC operated from the offices of the National Association of Manufacturers and is supported by companies such as Amoco, General Motors, Shell, Texaco, and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Prior to the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, it distributed a video claiming that far from being a problem, increased atmospheric carbon dioxide would merely increase crop production and help feed the world. Another denier organization is Heartland Institute. Established in 1984, the Institute opposed the Kyoto Protocol and favors genetically engineered crops, school vouchers, and deregulating the health care insurance industry. The oldest anti-global warming organization is the George C. Marshall Institute, founded in 1984 by members of the Jasons, the behind-the-scenes group of scientists who advised the Pentagon about various matters, including whether to use tactical nuclear weapons in Vietnam.
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