This concluding chapter infers from the preceding analysis on Vietnam's political activism. In their attempts to publicly assert their voice, urban intellectuals and journalists, such as Nguyễn An Ninh, had retained a sense of social responsibility and believed that the collective good—political and cultural—of the community ultimately depended on them. However, in a country where more than 80% of the population lived in rural areas, the practical prospect of mass mobilization, as incited by journalistic works, not only alarmed the French authorities, but also led many activists to discard newspapers altogether, ultimately regarding these as inadequate instruments of political action. Amid the tensions between the divisions of Vietnam's political activism, the 1926 events produced forms of political expressions that were previously unknown in Vietnam.
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