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Crowded OrbitsConflict and Cooperation in Space$
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James Clay Moltz

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780231159128

Published to Columbia Scholarship Online: November 2015

DOI: 10.7312/columbia/9780231159128.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM COLUMBIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.columbia.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Minnesota Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CUPSO for personal use.date: 08 May 2021

Civil Space

Civil Space

Science and Exploration

(p.59) 3 Civil Space
Crowded Orbits

James Clay Moltz

Columbia University Press

This chapter analyzes the contributions of space explorations towards science and research. It looks into the phenomena of “civil” spaceflight, which means nonmilitary and noncommercial activities in orbit and in deep space. Space exploration offers the potential for human beings to learn more about why humans are here on Earth, where the building blocks of life might have come from, and to determine the future of humans as a species might be. Understanding outer space better is also critical for beginning to open the option for people to live away from Earth on a permanent basis in the case of the ruination of the planet. Space science encompasses such high-profile activities such as planetary exploration, heliophysics, and Earth observation and monitoring. The chapter examines the scientific research done by major national space agencies such as NASA, Russian Space Agency, European Space Agency, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and the Indian Space Research Organization.

Keywords:   space exploration, science and research, civil spaceflight, nonmilitary, planetary exploration, heliophysics, NASA, European Space Agency, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Indian Space Research Organization

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