From Transition to Consolidation
This chapter offers a conceptual and empirical overview of the end of authoritarianism in Indonesia, the beginning of the democratic transition, and the possibilities of democratic consolidation. Indonesia's post-1998 political performance is addressed through the lens of Juan J. Linz and Alfred Stepan's conceptual approach to democratic transitions and consolidations. The transition, it is argued, was completed as early as 2004: the outgoing Parliament in November 1998 set a date for the country's first free elections since 1955; free and fair elections were held in 1999; the newly elected Parliament then democratized the Constitution in four rounds of constitutional amendments (1999–2001); and, finally, the military's undemocratic participation in the legislature and the election of the president was eliminated in 2004.
Columbia Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.
To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .