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Democracy and Islam in Indonesia$
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Alfred Stepan and Mirjam Künkler

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780231161916

Published to Columbia Scholarship Online: November 2015

DOI: 10.7312/columbia/9780231161916.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM COLUMBIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.columbia.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Minnesota Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CUPSO for personal use.date: 18 September 2021

Indonesian Democracy

Indonesian Democracy

From Transition to Consolidation

(p.24) 2 Indonesian Democracy
Democracy and Islam in Indonesia

R. William Liddle

Saiful Mujani

Columbia University Press

This chapter offers a conceptual and empirical overview of the end of authoritarianism in Indonesia, the beginning of the democratic transition, and the possibilities of democratic consolidation. Indonesia's post-1998 political performance is addressed through the lens of Juan J. Linz and Alfred Stepan's conceptual approach to democratic transitions and consolidations. The transition, it is argued, was completed as early as 2004: the outgoing Parliament in November 1998 set a date for the country's first free elections since 1955; free and fair elections were held in 1999; the newly elected Parliament then democratized the Constitution in four rounds of constitutional amendments (1999–2001); and, finally, the military's undemocratic participation in the legislature and the election of the president was eliminated in 2004.

Keywords:   authoritarianism, Indonesia, democratic transition, democratic consolidation, conceptual approach, Constitution, Parliament, free elections, legislature

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