This chapter addresses the following questions: How is Earth different? What is information? What is an evolutionary system? What constitutes scientific understanding? How does computer science fit in? How is purposeful complexity explained by science? It shows that all objects can be divided into two categories: Type I based on simple rules, and Type II requiring additional complicated rules, or instructions. By making this division, the exceptional complexity characterizing the planet Earth is seen to consist entirely of Type II objects, their behaviors, and their consequences. The division focuses our attention on instructions and also requires that we explain where the information in instructions comes from. Type II objects have another characteristic: they can always be seen in terms of some “purpose” or “fit.” Thus, the origin of purpose is to be found in the processes that create Type II objects.
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