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An Encouragement of Learning$
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Yukichi Fukuzawa

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780231167147

Published to Columbia Scholarship Online: November 2015

DOI: 10.7312/columbia/9780231167147.001.0001

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Three

Three

Chapter:
(p.18) (p.19) Section Three
Source:
An Encouragement of Learning
Author(s):

Fukuzawa Yukichi

, David A. Dilworth

Nishikawa Shunsaku

Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:10.7312/columbia/9780231167147.003.0003

This chapter presents the English translation of Section 3 of Fukuzawa Yukichi’s text Gakumon no susume (An Encouragement of Learning). Here he broadens the meaning of equality to discuss the relations between nations. He emphasizes that all nations are equal; but when the people of a nation do not have the spirit of individual independence, the corresponding right of national independence cannot be realized. There are three reasons for this: persons without the spirit of personal independence will not have deep concern for their country; those without the spirit of independence within themselves will also be unable to exercise their right of independence when in contact with foreigners outside; and those who lack the spirit of independence rely on the power of others and sometimes perpetrate evil deeds.

Keywords:   foreign relations, equality, independence, evil

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