This chapter presents the English translation of Section 3 of Fukuzawa Yukichi’s text Gakumon no susume (An Encouragement of Learning). Here he broadens the meaning of equality to discuss the relations between nations. He emphasizes that all nations are equal; but when the people of a nation do not have the spirit of individual independence, the corresponding right of national independence cannot be realized. There are three reasons for this: persons without the spirit of personal independence will not have deep concern for their country; those without the spirit of independence within themselves will also be unable to exercise their right of independence when in contact with foreigners outside; and those who lack the spirit of independence rely on the power of others and sometimes perpetrate evil deeds.
Columbia Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.
To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .