This chapter presents the English translation of Section 5 of Fukuzawa Yukichi’s text Gakumon no susume (An Encouragement of Learning). It contains a speech delivered by Fukuzawa on January 1, 1874, at Keio-gijuku, the school that he established. Here he says that with the opening of trade with foreign nations, there is no domestic affair that remains unrelated to the Japanese people. All matters must now be dealt with in comparison with foreign nations. However, Japan’s civilization is no match with that of the West. He says that the Japanese must lament their own inadequacies to follow the ways of the West, but at the same time increasingly awaken to the actual dangers to their independence as a nation.
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