This chapter presents the English translation of Section 7 of Fukuzawa Yukichi’s text Gakumon no susume (An Encouragement of Learning). Here Fukuzawa elaborates in greater detail the function and duty of citizens. He says that each citizen has a dual role. The first is to be subordinate to the government with the mentality of a guest. The second is to join together with the other citizens of the nation to form a company, as it were, that is called the nation, to enact and implement the laws of the nation. This involves the mentality of being a master. The nation is like a company, and its citizens like the colleagues of the company. Each individual plays the roles of both master and guest.
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