This chapter presents the English translation of Section 8 of Fukuzawa Yukichi’s text Gakumon no susume (An Encouragement of Learning). Here Fukuzawa discusses the importance of respecting the independence of others. Drawing on the book Moral Science by Francis Wayland, he sets out five characteristics that a person must freely employ in order to attain personal independence. However, these qualities must not be used to infringe upon the activities of others. He presents two examples of the evil which results from the doctrine of subordination between high and low and noble and base—first, in regard to the husband-and-wife relationship, and secondly, between parents and children. These evils are widespread in society and seep into every aspect of human social relations.
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