This chapter presents the English translation of Section 9 of Fukuzawa Yukichi’s text Gakumon no susume (An Encouragement of Learning). Here Fukuzawa distinguishes between the functions of individual persons and those of social beings. The former function is referred to as the pursuit of happiness in daily life through the powers of one’s own body and mind. The second function refers to people’s need to have wider human associations in the community. Fukuzawa believes that people cannot be satisfied with merely providing for themselves and their immediate families. There are higher bonds than this in human nature. Therefore they must enter into communities of social life, and work for the good of society according to their capacity as one of its members.
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