This chapter presents the English translation of Section 11 of Fukuzawa Yukichi’s text Gakumon no susume (An Encouragement of Learning). Fukuzawa argues here that the theory of moral subordination of inferiors to superiors is only appropriate for the parent–child relation. Since parents love their children even more than themselves, the instructions and discipline, encouragements and scoldings which they give their children spring from loving affection. It is impossible for the same relation to prevail between adult strangers. Yet, however difficult it might be, attempts have been made to extend the theory of moral subordination to all human relations. This is the reason why tyranny has subsequently been practiced.
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