This chapter presents the English translation of Section 13 of Fukuzawa Yukichi’s text Gakumon no susume (An Encouragement of Learning). Fukuzawa argues in this section that envy is the human vice that is most damaging to society. Envy is a completely negative thing and never has a positive side. It is a discontent with the conditions of another, demanding too much of one, without reflecting upon oneself. Such a means to gratify one’s discontent does one’s self no good, and harms the other as well. Envy is also the mother of a whole brood of vices—suspicion, jealousy, fear, cowardice. It appears inwardly in the forms of furtive talk, whispering, confidential remarks, secret intrigues; outwardly it assumes the destructive forms of cliques, assassinations, rebellions, civil wars. They bring not the slightest benefit to the nation and no one escapes from the trouble which they bring in their wake.
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