This chapter presents the English translation of Section 16 of Fukuzawa Yukichi’s text Gakumon no susume (An Encouragement of Learning). Fukuzawa describes here the two forms of independence, material and spiritual. Material independence means that each person in society may possess his own property and conduct his own business affairs, thereby providing for himself and his family without being a burden to others. Such material independence is something tangible. Spiritual independence of mind has a profounder meaning and wider implications; it sometimes involves matters which appear to be unrelated to it. Fukuzawa also discusses how and words and deeds must properly balance and coincide. This means taking action instead of just grumbling and finding fault in others. He says that if a person is dissatisfied with another person’s efforts, they should complete the task themselves. If a person should think another’s business is poorly done, they should aim to do it better. Before a person comments on a scholar or a doctor, they should become one themselves.
Columbia Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.
To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .