How Geology Affects the Fate of the Shoreline
Storm surges will be the working force of sea-level rise. As the sea rises, surges extend further inland and to higher elevations. These powerful forces transport debris that crashes into everything else. Atolls are particularly vulnerable, not only because of sea-level rise, but also because sea-level rise is pushing up the groundwater table and reducing its volume. Also pollution of the shrinking freshwater layer by human activities is a major problem. Arctic villages are threatened because of permafrost melting causing shorelines to be more vulnerable to erosion. Barrier islands make up 10 to 12% of the world's shorelines and because of their ability to migrate with the sea-level rise are a major problem for development of any kind.
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