This chapter describes events following the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and the proclamation of the Republic of China in 1912. Although the thirteenth Dalai Lama attempted to rule Tibet on his own authority, the new Chinese government upheld China's claims to Tibet. The Dalai Lama's efforts to strengthen the independent position of the Tibetan government through reforms and diplomacy were obstructed by the clergy of the great Gelukpa monasteries, Drepung, Sera, and Ganden. In their opinion, the reforms desired by the Dalai Lama jeopardized the traditional system of the “union of religion and politics.” Since the 1990s, the policy of the Chinese government in Beijing with respect to Tibetan reincarnations has been to try to revert to the methods of control established by the Qing.
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