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Shadow MedicineThe Placebo in Conventional and Alternative Therapies$
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John Haller

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780231169042

Published to Columbia Scholarship Online: November 2015

DOI: 10.7312/columbia/9780231169042.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM COLUMBIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.columbia.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Minnesota Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CUPSO for personal use.date: 24 May 2022

Evidence-Based Medicine

Evidence-Based Medicine

(p.1) 1 Evidence-Based Medicine
Shadow Medicine

John S. Haller

Columbia University Press

This chapter recounts the emergence of orthodox medicine. Medical care and medical education emerged as a scientific enterprise in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, with the help of the advances in germ theory, anti-septic techniques, hygiene, anesthesia, and surgery. By the turn of the twentieth century, orthodox medicine succeeded in eliminating a number of unconventional therapies, challenging philosophy-based practices through “evidence-based medicine” (EBM). Biomedicine treated disease as a biochemical phenomenon that could be classified into discrete categories of causation using standardized, objectified, and technologically validated biochemical treatments and mechanisms. This led to the evolution of clinical trials, such as the blind or masked (placebo) assessment; the double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial (RCT); and the so-called Cochrane Collaboration, which incorporated meta-analysis to support RCT's predictions.

Keywords:   orthodox medicine, medical care, medical education, medical advances, evidence-based medicine, biomedicine, blind assessment, placebo, randomized clinical trial, Cochrane Collaboration

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