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From Head Shops to Whole Foods – The Rise and Fall of Activist Entrepreneurs - Columbia Scholarship Online
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From Head Shops to Whole Foods: The Rise and Fall of Activist Entrepreneurs

Joshua Clark Davis


In the 1960s and ’70s, a diverse range of storefronts—including head shops, African American bookstores, feminist businesses, and organic grocers—brought the work of the New Left, Black Power, feminism, environmentalism, and other movements into the marketplace. Through shared ownership, limited growth, and democratic workplaces, these activist entrepreneurs offered alternatives to conventional profit-driven corporate business models. By the middle of the 1970s, thousands of these enterprises operated across the United States—but only a handful survive today. Some, such as Whole Foods Market, ... More

Keywords: Activist entrepreneurs, Black bookstores, Headshops, Counterculture, feminist businesses, Whole Foods Market, social enterprise

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2017 Print ISBN-13: 9780231171588
Published to Columbia Scholarship Online: January 2019 DOI:10.7312/columbia/9780231171588.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Joshua Clark Davis, author
University of Baltimore