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Identifying with NationalityEuropeans, Ottomans, and Egyptians in Alexandria$
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Will Hanley

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780231177627

Published to Columbia Scholarship Online: January 2019

DOI: 10.7312/columbia/9780231177627.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM COLUMBIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.columbia.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Minnesota Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CUPSO for personal use.date: 18 September 2021



(p.196) 9 Protégés
Identifying with Nationality

Will Hanley

Columbia University Press

Over the course of the nineteenth century, the figure of the protégé became a source of great anxiety throughout the Ottoman world. Fear of unbridled commercial and economic rights for foreign protégés (most of them non-Muslims) lay behind the first Ottoman nationality law, promulgated in 1869. In fact, there were very few officially recognized protégés, most of them consular employees. After the 1860s, the protégé became a challenge for the emerging field of private international law, as a diverse social phenomenon was translated into a formal legal status. Protection was something less than citizenship, but something more than local status.

Keywords:   Capitulations, protégé, protection, merchants, minorities, exception

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