Over the course of the nineteenth century, the figure of the protégé became a source of great anxiety throughout the Ottoman world. Fear of unbridled commercial and economic rights for foreign protégés (most of them non-Muslims) lay behind the first Ottoman nationality law, promulgated in 1869. In fact, there were very few officially recognized protégés, most of them consular employees. After the 1860s, the protégé became a challenge for the emerging field of private international law, as a diverse social phenomenon was translated into a formal legal status. Protection was something less than citizenship, but something more than local status.
Columbia Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.
To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .