Historians agree that Egypt was, for all intents and purposes, independent of the Ottoman empire by the last quarter of the century. This chapter examines legal rather than political citizenship, drawing on travel documents, census categories, and jurisdictional arguments in the realm of private international law. The twenty-thousand-odd Ottoman subjects residing in Alexandria at the turn of the century were not governed by the Capitulations, nor were they subjects of the Egyptian khedive. Both “local” and “foreign,” these Ottomans were imperial citizens at a time of rising nation-state nationality law.
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